The History of Political Police and State Security Agencies of Russia in XIX - XX centuries


The country's only publicly accessible non-departmental museum, dedicated to the history of Russian security services, invites to visit its new permanent exposition. The museum is not by chance located in the building on Gorokhovaya Street, 2. For over fifty years, Russian and Soviet secret services worked here.

The first part of the exhibition introduces the history and activities of the III Section of His Imperial Majesty's own Chancellery (1826-1880) and the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (1880-1917).

√ Who led the political police of the Russian Empire in the 19th - early 20th centuries?

√ How did the political police fight the propaganda of revolutionary ideas in Russia, and what role did censorship play in this?

√ What is an Postal censorship?

√ What was the reason for the creation and how did the foreign political police agency of the Russian Empire work?

√ How the assassinations of Emperor Alexander II and Prime Minister Stolypin were investigated?

These and many other questions will be answered by the materials presented here.

Visitors can see the pages of the Decembrist Pestel`s interrogation reports, the reports about the writer Chernyshevsky, the reports about the terrorists Ishutin and Karakozov, Zasulich, the diary about the outdoor observation around the poet Esenin. Also, visitors can see the original double-bottomed suitcase and vest for transporting illegal literature, as well as the bulletproof vest torn off the part-time probation worker in the days of February 1917, and much more. Fragments of an underground printing house, dressing room filers (employees of external surveillance) and a "black" (perelustration) office were recreated here.

The second part of the exhibition is devoted to the history of Soviet state security agencies in October 1917 before the Soviet government moving to Moscow in March 1918. Visitors will learn about the struggle of the Petrograd Military-Revolutionary Committee (PMRC) in October-December 1917 against numerous and diverse threats to the Bolsheviks' power in Petrograd (Kerensky's campaign, sabotage of civil servants, wine pogroms, etc.). On December 20, 1917, the first Soviet special service, All-Russian extraordinary Committee that struggled against the counter-revolution and sabotage, was established. It was located in on Gorokhovaya Street, 2 and worked here until March 1918.

There are documents, photos and personal effects of security officers, who worked in a building located at Gorokhovaya street, 2 and the all-Russian extraordinary Committee’s chairman F. Dzerzhinsky. Visitors will also see authentic objects from the Temporary Detention House, a prison

that has been in operation since 1875 to the present day: a prison cell door, a bell for the warden to call, and a chair for photographing prisoners.

F. Dzerzhinsky’s working office is also situated here. In the early 1970s, the museum staff and Leningrad restorers recreated its historical interior. In 1975, the memorial cabinet was transferred as a branch to the Museum of the Great October Socialist Revolution (now the Museum of Political History of Russia).

The last section reveals the history of the Soviet Union State security agencies from October,1917 till March, 1953.

√How the security officers investigated the attempted murder of V. Lenin, the murder of V. Volodarsky and M. Uritsky?

√ Which conspiracies were revealed by Petrograd security officers during the Civil war?

√ How counter-espionage, intelligence and economic management of the all-Russian extraordinary Committee, the joint state political office were created?

√How and whom terminated the criminal activity of the famous thief-recidivist Lyon’ka Panteleev?

√What were the Operations “Trest” and “Syndicate-2?

√How did the Soviet leadership react to the reports of the Soviet foreign intelligence about Germany's preparation for the war in the late 1930s-early 1940s?

√What were the counter-intelligence organizations in the Soviet Union?

√ How did the soviet intelligence and the counter-intelligence struggle against German agents and their panders during the siege in Leningrad?

Normative documents, photos, statistics will show the participation of security officers in the repressive policy of the Soviet Union during the Civil war (Red terror), during the New economic policy, industrialization and collectivization (“Philosophical steamships”, “Shakhtinsky’s judicial and political process”, repressions of the Red Army’s officers, which was called “Spring case”, etc.).

This section presents unique exhibits: a bullet fired during the attempted murder of Volodarsky: the ashtray of Messing, head of the Leningrad Chekists in the 1920s; the razor of Artuzov, head of Soviet counterintelligence and intelligence; personal belongings of legendary Soviet spies Bystroletov, Lyagin, and Feklisov, transferred to the museum from family archives. These materials are added to the video chronicles of the 1920s-1940s. Many of the exhibits are shown for the first time.

Please not that the exhibit labels and excursions are available only in Russian. English translations are in work.


Публикация от: 20.10.2020 15:52:18